Challenges and Contests are Appealing!

Challenges and Contests are Appealing!

Challenges (ISSN 2078-1547) is a unique open access journal that publishes ideas for research projects (research proposals), research plans, perspectives or ideas for solving grand challenges, descriptions of tested and untested prototypes and other similar material. Its content is typically not publishable in a research journal, but has wider scholarly or scientific relevance and therefore deserves to be publicized in a journal such as Challenges. Continue reading

Flavonoid Thiol Toxicity: What’s in a Group?


Antioxidants are a direct consequence of the highly oxidizing environment (21% atmospheric dioxygen) in which we live on the third rock from the sun. The switch from anaerobic to aerobic metabolism during the evolution of the majority of organisms on this planet not only resulted in a more efficient liberation of energy from glucose (~30 [1] vs. 2 ATP), but came at a price, since dioxygen has several alter-egos. With two unpaired electrons, dioxygen is a typical free radical, albeit that its chemistry is constrained; however, all hell breaks loose when this constraint is lifted and various highly reactive oxygen species (ROS) are formed.

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