Evolution and Diversification of Snake Venom Toxins

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Snake venom toxins are well-known for their profound physiological effects that enable their use as tools to aid basic research and clarify pathological processes; they also have enormous potential in drug design and development. Further, an area of growing interest is the molecular evolution and diversification of these toxins, a particularly rapid and dynamic process for which the underlying mechanisms are still being unraveled.

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Gluten Sensitive?

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Non-celiac gluten sensitivity (NCGS) is defined as intestinal and non-intestinal symptoms resulting from the ingestion of gluten, and which is not due to celiac disease (CD) or wheat allergy. Gluten sensitivity appears to be increasing and is thus a topic of significant public and research interest;  a recent paper published in the journal Nutrients describes progress in the field from a meeting of experts.1  Some common questions about gluten sensitivity are posed below, illustrating that while some basics are clear, there is much yet to unravel about the cause of NCGS.

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