This week’s selection of recently published papers from MDPI journals.
Fucoidan Inhibits the Proliferation of Human Urinary Bladder Cancer T24 Cells by Blocking Cell Cycle Progression and Inducing Apoptosis
Abstract: Although fucoidan has been shown to exert anticancer activity against several types of cancer cell lines, no reports have explored fucoidan-affected cell growth in human urinary bladder cancer cells. In this study, we investigated the anti-proliferative effects of fucoidan in human bladder cancer T24 cells. Our results indicated that fucoidan decreased the viability of T24 cells through the induction of G1 arrest and apoptosis. Fucoidan-induced G1 arrest is associated with the enhanced expression of the Cdk inhibitor p21WAF1/CIP1 and dephosphorylation of the pRB along with enhanced binding of p21 to Cdk4/6 as well as pRB to the transcription factor E2Fs. Further investigations showed the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential and the release of cytochrome c from mitochondria to cytosol, proving mitochondrial dysfunction upon fucoidan treatment with a corresponding increase in the Bax/Bcl-2 expression ratio. Fucoidan-triggered apoptosis was also accompanied by the up-regulation of Fas and truncated Bid as well as the sequential activation of caspase-8. Furthermore, a significant increased activation of caspase-9/-3 was detected in response to fucoidan treatment with the decreased expression of IAPs and degradation of PARP, whereas a pan-caspase inhibitor significantly suppressed apoptosis and rescued the cell viability reduction. In conclusion, these observations suggest that fucoidan attenuates G1-S phase cell cycle progression and serves as an important mediator of crosstalk between caspase-dependent intrinsic and extrinsic apoptotic pathways in T24 cells.
For Open Access Article, see: Park, H.Y.; Kim, G.-Y.; Moon, S.-K.; Kim, W.J.; Yoo, Y.H.; Choi, Y.H. Fucoidan Inhibits the Proliferation of Human Urinary Bladder Cancer T24 Cells by Blocking Cell Cycle Progression and Inducing Apoptosis. Molecules 2014, 19, 5981-5998.
Carbon Nanofibers and Their Composites: A Review of Synthesizing, Properties and Applications
Abstract: Carbon nanofiber (CNF), as one of the most important members of carbon fibers, has been investigated in both fundamental scientific research and practical applications. CNF composites are able to be applied as promising materials in many fields, such as electrical devices, electrode materials for batteries and supercapacitors and as sensors. In these applications, the electrical conductivity is always the first priority need to be considered. In fact, the electrical property of CNF composites largely counts on the dispersion and percolation status of CNFs in matrix materials. In this review, the electrical transport phenomenon of CNF composites is systematically summarized based on percolation theory. The effects of the aspect ratio, percolation backbone structure and fractal characteristics of CNFs and the non-universality of the percolation critical exponents on the electrical properties are systematically reviewed. Apart from the electrical property, the thermal conductivity and mechanical properties of CNF composites are briefly reviewed, as well. In addition, the preparation methods of CNFs, including catalytic chemical vapor deposition growth and electrospinning, and the preparation methods of CNF composites, including the melt mixing and solution process, are briefly introduced. Finally, their applications as sensors and electrode materials are described in this review article.
For Open Access Article, see: Feng L.; Xie, N.; Zhong, J. Carbon Nanofibers and Their Composites: A Review of Synthesizing, Properties and Applications. Materials 2014, 7, 3919-3945.
Sub-Inhibitory Concentrations of Trans-Cinnamaldehyde Attenuate Virulence in Cronobacter sakazakii in Vitro
Abstract: Cronobacter sakazakii is a foodborne pathogen, which causes a life-threatening form of meningitis, necrotizing colitis and meningoencephalitis in neonates and children. Epidemiological studies implicate dried infant formula as the principal source of C. sakazakii. In this study, we investigated the efficacy of sub-inhibitory concentrations (SIC) of trans-cinnamaldehyde (TC), an ingredient in cinnamon, for reducing C. sakazakii virulence in vitro using cell culture, microscopy and gene expression assays. TC significantly (p ≤ 0.05) suppressed C. sakazakii adhesion to and invasion of human and rat intestinal epithelial cells, and human brain microvascular endothelial cells. In addition, TC inhibited C. sakazakiisurvival and replication in human macrophages. We also observed that TC reduced the ability of C. sakazakii to cause cell death in rat intestinal cells, by inhibiting nitric oxide production. Results from gene expression studies revealed that TC significantly downregulated the virulence genes critical for motility, host tissue adhesion and invasion, macrophage survival, and LPS (Lipopolysaccharide) synthesis in C. sakazakii. The efficacy of TC in attenuating these major virulence factors in C. sakazakii underscores its potential use in the prevention and/or control of infection caused by this pathogen.
For Open Access Article, see: Amalaradjou, M.A.R.; Kim, K.S.; Venkitanarayanan, K. Sub-Inhibitory Concentrations of Trans-Cinnamaldehyde Attenuate Virulence in Cronobacter sakazakii in Vitro. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15, 8639-8655.
Exploiting Natural Products to Build Metalla-Assemblies: The Anticancer Activity of Embelin-Derived Rh(III) and Ir(III) Metalla-Rectangles
Abstract: Six new pentamethylcyclopentadienyl Rh(III) and Ir(III) metalla-rectangles ((CF3SO3)4–(CF3SO3)4) have been prepared by a self-assembly strategy using the embelin-derived metalla-clips (η5-C5Me5)2M2(μ4-C6HRO4-κO)Cl2 (M = Rh, 1; M = Ir, 2; R = (CH2)10CH3) and the linear ditopic ligands, pyrazine, 4,4′-bipyridine and 1,2-bis (4-pyridyl)ethylene. These new metalla-rectangles have been obtained in high yield and isolated as their triflate salts. The complexes have been fully characterized by standard spectroscopic techniques and the antiproliferative activity of these tetranuclear complexes was evaluated in vitro on cancerous (DU-145, A-549, HeLa) and noncancerous (HEK-293) cell lines. The biological study has showed a better activity for the rhodium derivatives over the iridium analogs and for all complexes a very good selectivity for cancerous over noncancerous cells. The presence of lipophilic side chains coupled with the positive charge of the tetranuclear complexes suggested a cytotoxic activity involving the mitochondrial machinery, as demonstrated by multiple biological experiments.
For Open Access Article, see: Gupta, G.; Kumar, J.M.; Garci, A.; Nagesh, N.; Therrien, B. Exploiting Natural Products to Build Metalla-Assemblies: The Anticancer Activity of Embelin-Derived Rh(III) and Ir(III) Metalla-Rectangles. Molecules 2014, 19, 6031-6046.
Di-Ethylhexylphthalate (DEHP) Modulates Cell Invasion, Migration and Anchorage Independent Growth through Targeting S100P in LN-229 Glioblastoma Cells
Abstract: Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most aggressive brain cancer with a median survival of 1–2 years. The treatment of GBM includes surgical resection, radiation and chemotherapy, which minimally extends survival. This poor prognosis necessitates the identification of novel molecular targets associated with glioblastoma. S100P is associated with drug resistance, metastasis, and poor clinical outcomes in many malignancies. The functional role of S100P in glioblastoma has not been fully investigated. In this study, we examined the role of S100P mediating the effects of the environmental contaminant, DEHP, in glioblastoma cells (LN-229) by assessing cell proliferation, apoptosis, anchorage independent growth, cell migration and invasion following DEHP exposure. Silencing S100P and DEHP treatment inhibited LN-229 glioblastoma cell proliferation and induced apoptosis. Anchorage independent growth study revealed significantly decreased colony formation in shS100P cells. We also observed reduced cell migration in cells treated with DEHP following S100P knockdown. Similar results were observed in spheroid formation and expansion. This study is the first to demonstrate the effects of DEHP on glioblastoma cells, and implicates S100P as a potential therapeutic target that may be useful as a drug response biomarker.
For Open Access Article, see: Sims, J.N.; Graham, B.; Pacurari, M.; Leggett, S.S.; Tchounwou, P.B.; Ndebele, K. Di-Ethylhexylphthalate (DEHP) Modulates Cell Invasion, Migration and Anchorage Independent Growth through Targeting S100P in LN-229 Glioblastoma Cells. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2014, 11, 5006-5019.
Human Antimicrobial Peptides and Protein
Abstract: As the key components of innate immunity, human host defense antimicrobial peptides and proteins (AMPs) play a critical role in warding off invading microbial pathogens. In addition, AMPs can possess other biological functions such as apoptosis, wound healing, and immune modulation. This article provides an overview on the identification, activity, 3D structure, and mechanism of action of human AMPs selected from the antimicrobial peptide database. Over 100 such peptides have been identified from a variety of tissues and epithelial surfaces, including skin, eyes, ears, mouths, gut, immune, nervous and urinary systems. These peptides vary from 10 to 150 amino acids with a net charge between −3 and +20 and a hydrophobic content below 60%. The sequence diversity enables human AMPs to adopt various 3D structures and to attack pathogens by different mechanisms. While α-defensin HD-6 can self-assemble on the bacterial surface into nanonets to entangle bacteria, both HNP-1 and β-defensin hBD-3 are able to block cell wall biosynthesis by binding to lipid II. Lysozyme is well-characterized to cleave bacterial cell wall polysaccharides but can also kill bacteria by a non-catalytic mechanism. The two hydrophobic domains in the long amphipathic α-helix of human cathelicidin LL-37 lays the basis for binding and disrupting the curved anionic bacterial membrane surfaces by forming pores or via the carpet model. Furthermore, dermcidin may serve as ion channel by forming a long helix-bundle structure. In addition, the C-type lectin RegIIIα can initially recognize bacterial peptidoglycans followed by pore formation in the membrane. Finally, histatin 5 and GAPDH(2-32) can enter microbial cells to exert their effects. It appears that granulysin enters cells and kills intracellular pathogens with the aid of pore-forming perforin. This arsenal of human defense proteins not only keeps us healthy but also inspires the development of a new generation of personalized medicine to combat drug-resistant superbugs, fungi, viruses, parasites, or cancer. Alternatively, multiple factors (e.g., albumin, arginine, butyrate, calcium, cyclic AMP, isoleucine, short-chain fatty acids, UV B light, vitamin D, and zinc) are able to induce the expression of antimicrobial peptides, opening new avenues to the development of anti-infectious drugs.
For Open Access Article, see: Wang, G. Human Antimicrobial Peptides and Proteins. Pharmaceuticals 2014, 7, 545-594.